Clock induced charge (CIC) is a charge generated by signal charge transfer process in CCD devices. This is a fixed value when readout clock and clock duty cycle is fixed, but it is small enough for standard CCD to be ignored in terms of SNR. In the case of EM-CCD, however, the charge is multiplied through the electron multiplication process and the multiplied charges are not small enough to be ignored in a photon-sparce region where EM-CCD is usually used.
Since CIC is constant with respect to time and thermal charge is time dependent, CIC will dominate the dark charge in images taken at short exposures and thermal charge will dominate the dark charge in images taken at longer exposures.
The value is a conversion coefficient from digital counts (grey level) to electrons in a photodetector. It is often used to know how many photons are coming into the camera in an experiment by digital counts of the camera.
A signal processing method most commonly used for reducing readout noise in a CMOS/CCD. The CMOS/CCD signal output detected with an FDA contains kTC noise originating from the detection node capacitance. The kTC noise is also referred to as thermal noise and is always generated by reset operation in a charge-to-voltage converter device like a CMOS/CCD. The kTC noise in the output can be reduced by using CDS which detects the difference in voltage levels before and after the signal charge flows in the detection node.
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