The latest development in imaging technology, scientific CMOS (sCMOS) sensors simultaneously deliver high sensitivity, fast readout speeds, and low noise without the addition of multiplicative noise associated with EM-CCDs. The combination of high sensitivity and low noise ensures high signal-to-noise ratio during low-light imaging. These image sensors have pixels composed of a photodiode and an amplifier that converts charge into voltage. The voltage of each pixel is output by turning on the switch one by one, and the data of each horizontal line is read by the on-chip column amplifier and A/D in parallel and simultaneously. This results in very fast readout speed while keeping the readout noise very low. Hamamatsu sCMOS cameras are designed to offer unprecedented sensitivity (because of high QE and low noise) with minimal pixel gain variation and fast frame rate.
Popular cameras are listed below.
Effects of Camera Specifications on Relative SNR. Historically, Nr has been the primary camera spec used to define sensitivity. With the performance of Gen II sCMOS, it is crucial to understand how QE, Nr and Fn all affect SNR. The purple line is the relative SNR for a perfect camera. The numbers above this line indicates the SNR ratio at a series of intensities and SNR = 1 is indicated by a star on each curve. Because this is a perfect camera, these SNRs are only limited by photon shot noise. For each of the three real cameras on this graph, there are bars below that represent regions of each curve. At lowest light level, shown in region (A), Nr dominates relative SNR calculations (S < Nr2/(QE*Fn2) and the crossover into shot noise dominated regions is the upper boundary of this low light region (triangle, 2.3 photons for ORCA-Flash4.0 and 50 photons for CCD). The (B) region is the intermediate zone, where Nr, eQE and Fn all contribute to the relative SNR. We define the upper boundary of this region as the point at which the curve is 95 % of the maximum relative SNR for that camera (arrow, 20 photons for ORCA-Flash4.0 versus 550 photons for CCD). The (C) region is the high light region where eQE is the only camera parameter that matters (SNR loss shown by vertical brackets). These three regions are easily defined for the ORCA-Flash4.0 and for an interline CCD, both of which have Fn = 1. For EM-CCD the curve is flat. Except at the very lowest light levels, the EMCCD curve mirrors the shape of the perfect camera almost exactly, except that SNR reduced to 0.68 of the value of the perfect camera. Thus, it is clear that in spite of low Nr and high apparent QE, the SNR of the EM-CCD is greatly affected by Fn = 1.4, and all input light levels in the EM-CCD reside in the region where eQE dominates.
Comparison of image uniformity between the Gen II ORCA-Flash4.0 and a Gen I sCMOS camera. (A) sCMOS requires careful sensor and camera design to ensure uniform response for every pixel in the image. The ORCA-Flash4.0 has excellent image uniformity. (B) Gen I sCMOS shows vertical stripes. Because such patterns may not appear at low light levels it is important to look for these stripes at other intensities.
It looks like you're in the . If this is not your location, please select the correct region and country below.
You're headed to Hamamatsu Photonics website for US (English). If you want to view an other country's site, the optimized information will be provided by selecting options below.
For modern websites to work according to visitor’s expectations, they need to collect certain basic information about visitors. To do this, a site will create small text files which are placed on visitor’s devices (computer or mobile) - these files are known as cookies when you access a website. Cookies are used in order to make websites function and work efficiently. Cookies are uniquely assigned to each visitor and can only be read by a web server in the domain that issued the cookie to the visitor. Cookies cannot be used to run programs or deliver viruses to a visitor’s device.
Cookies do various jobs which make the visitor’s experience of the internet much smoother and more interactive. For instance, cookies are used to remember the visitor’s preferences on sites they visit often, to remember language preference and to help navigate between pages more efficiently. Much, though not all, of the data collected is anonymous, though some of it is designed to detect browsing patterns and approximate geographical location to improve the visitor experience.
Certain type of cookies may require the data subject’s consent before storing them on the computer.
This website uses two types of cookies:
There are two ways to manage cookie preferences.
If you wish to restrict or block web browser cookies which are set on your device then you can do this through your browser settings; the Help function within your browser should tell you how. Alternatively, you may wish to visit www.aboutcookies.org, which contains comprehensive information on how to do this on a wide variety of desktop browsers.
Occasionally, we may use internet tags (also known as action tags, single-pixel GIFs, clear GIFs, invisible GIFs and 1-by-1 GIFs) at this site and may deploy these tags/cookies through a third-party advertising partner or a web analytical service partner which may be located and store the respective information (including your IP-address) in a foreign country. These tags/cookies are placed on both online advertisements that bring users to this site and on different pages of this site. We use this technology to measure the visitors' responses to our sites and the effectiveness of our advertising campaigns (including how many times a page is opened and which information is consulted) as well as to evaluate your use of this website. The third-party partner or the web analytical service partner may be able to collect data about visitors to our and other sites because of these internet tags/cookies, may compose reports regarding the website’s activity for us and may provide further services which are related to the use of the website and the internet. They may provide such information to other parties if there is a legal requirement that they do so, or if they hire the other parties to process information on their behalf.
If you would like more information about web tags and cookies associated with on-line advertising or to opt-out of third-party collection of this information, please visit the Network Advertising Initiative website http://www.networkadvertising.org.
We use third-party cookies (such as Google Analytics) to track visitors on our website, to get reports about how visitors use the website and to inform, optimize and serve ads based on someone's past visits to our website.
You may opt-out of Google Analytics cookies by the websites provided by Google:
We inform you that in such case you will not be able to wholly use all functions of our website.