ImagEM X2 EM-CCD camera


The ImagEM X2 is an extremely versatile camera that quietly delivers 70 frames/s at full frame and up to 1076 frames/s with analog binning and regions of interest. With very high signal to noise in near dark conditions and extremely low dark current, the ImagEM X2 enables quantitative ultra-low light imaging both for long integration times and at high speed. With EM gain off, the extremely deep full well capacity can extract information from the lowest contrast bright images. Additional new features allow for optimized camera triggering, on-board for EM gain protection, streamlined connectivity through IEEE1394b, improved overall signal to noise and increased non-EM dynamic range. Hamamatsu has taken the beloved 512 × 512 EM-CCD sensor and created a masterfully redesigned camera that delivers maximum speed and precision performance.
The ImagEM X2-1K(C9100-24B) 1024×1024 version is also available.

Camera articles

qCMOS camera vs. EM-CCD camera – Performance comparison of Photon counting cameras

The qCMOS camera is positioned as an ultra-sensitive camera that offers the ultimate in quantitative imaging because of its extremely low noise performance. Therefore, when comparing a qCMOS and EM-CCD camera it is necessary to judge which camera is best suited to your application.


The purpose of this article is to compare qCMOS and EM-CCD cameras to help you choose the best camera for your application.



Type number C9100-23B
Camera head type Hermetic vacuum-sealed chamber air/water-cooled head *1
Window Anti-reflection (AR) coatings on both sides, single window
AR mask Yes
Imaging device Electron Multiplying Back-Thinned Frame Transfer CCD
Effective number of pixels 512 (H) × 512 (V)
Cell size 16 μm (H) × 16 μm (V)
Effective area 8.19 mm (H) × 8.19 mm (V)
Pixel clock rate (EM-CCD readout) 22 MHz, 11 MHz, 0.6875 MHz
Pixel clock rate (NORMAL CCD readout) 0.6875 MHz
EM (electron multiplying) gain 1×, 4× to 1200× (typ.) *2
Ultra low light detection Photon Imaging mode (1, 2, 3)
Fastest readout speed 70.4 frames/s to 1076 frames/s
Readout noise (EM-CCD readout) 36 electrons (EM gain 4×, at 22 MHz) (rms) (typ.)
25 electrons (EM gain 4×, at 11 MHz) (rms) (typ.)
8 electrons (EM gain 4×, at 0.6875 MHz) (rms) (typ.)
1 electron max. (EM gain 1200×) (rms) (typ.)
Readout noise (NORMAL CCD readout) 8 electrons (at 0.6875 MHz) (rms) (typ.)
Full well capacity EM-CCD readout: 370 000 electrons (typ.) *3
NORMAL CCD readout: 140 000 electrons (typ.)
Analog gain EM-CCD readout (22 MHz): 1×
EM-CCD readout (11 MHz/0.6875 MHz): 0.5×, 1×
Normal CCD readout: 1×, 2×, 3×, 4×, 5×
Cooling temperature (Forced-air cooled) At temperature control: -65 ℃ (Ambient temperature: 0 ℃ to +30 ℃)
At maximum cooling (typ.): -80 ℃ (Ambient temperature: stable at +20 ℃)
Cooling temperature (Water cooled) At temperature control: -80 ℃ (Water temperature: +20 ℃)
At maximum cooling (typ.): -100 ℃ (Water temperature: lower than +10 ℃)
Temperature stability (Forced-air cooled) ±0.01 ℃ (typ.)
Temperature stability (Water cooled) ±0.01 ℃ (typ.)
Dark current (Forced-air cooled) 0.005 electron/pixel/s (-65 ℃) (typ.)
Dark current (Water cooled) 0.0005 electron/pixel/s (-80 ℃) (typ.)
Clock induced charge 0.0015 events/pixel/frame (typ.)
Exposure time (Internal sync mode) 13.9 ms to 1 s (22 MHz)
27.2 ms to 2 h (11 MHz)
421.5 ms to 2 h (0.6875 MHz)
Exposure time (External trigger mode) 10 μs to 1 s (22 MHz)
10 μs to 2 h (11 MHz/0.6875 MHz/Normal-CCD readout)
A/D converter 16 bit
Output signal/External control IEEE1394b
Sub-array Every 16 lines (horizontal, vertical) size, position can be set
Binning 2×2, 4×4, 8×8, 16×16 *4
External trigger mode Edge trigger, Level trigger, Start trigger, Synchronous readout trigger
Trigger output Exposure timing output, Programmable timing output (Delay and pulse length are variable.), Trigger ready output
Image processing features (real-time) Background subtraction, Shading correction, Recursive filter, Frame averaging, Spot noise reducer *5
EM gain protection EM warning mode, EM protection mode
EM gain readjustment Available
Lens mount C-mount
Power supply AC 100 V to 240 V, 50 Hz / 60 Hz
Power consumption Approx. 140 VA
Ambient storage temperature -10 °C to + 50 °C
Ambient operating temperature 0 °C to + 40 °C
Performance guaranteed temperature 0 °C to + 30 °C
Ambient operating/storage humidity 70 % max. (with no condensation)
*1 Hermetic vacuum-sealed chamber air/water-cooled head maintains a high degree of vacuum, 10-8 Torr, without re-evacuation.
*2 Even with electron multiplying gain maximum, dark signal is kept at a low level during low light imaging.
*3 Linearity is not assured when full well capacity is over 370 000 electrons, because of CCD performance.
*4 8×8 and 16×16 binning are available on special order.
*5 Recursive filter, frame averaging, and spot noise reducer cannot be used simultaneously.

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